USZA Commercial Facility Accreditation Standards

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

General Guidelines


The following guidelines are the minimum standards for USZA animal care and housing accreditation for a commercial facility open to the public. Specific alternatives may be allowed by the USZA accreditation committee on a case by case basis. Application fee is $300.00 and the applicant must pay all costs for the accreditation process including one inspector, representing USZA, to perform a 2-3 day hands on inspection at the facility.

USZA Required Information and/or Records Available For The Inspector

• A written inventory of all animals on premises listed by classification
• A letter from your state, county or city governing agency that shows you are in good standing.
• A copy of your last 3 years of USDA inspection reports.
• Provide documentation of a licensed veterinarian of record and secondary licensed veterinarian on call for emergencies.
• A copy of your written safety protocols that are in place to assure the public and animal’s safety in case of severe weather, tornado, flood, escape, injury or medical need, and fire. Please show proof that all employees and volunteers are trained to implement these safety protocols and provide a letter from your licensed veterinarian of record that shows he has reviewed your protocols and vouches that they are in use at your facility.
• USZA requires each employee or volunteer working directly in contact with a species of animal or that has direct access to the cage of a species of animal to have a minimum of 1000 hours of documented experience with that species of animal. There must be written records of all employee/volunteer training hours and the signature of the trainer(s) who vouches for those training hours and that the employee/volunteer is properly trained.
• Provide copies of all animal diets, which are to be in a written form for each species and must show the daily rations and feeding times for each species. All diets must be approved and signed by applicant’s licensed veterinarian of record.
• Written protocols for cage inspection and maintenance including what is done during an inspection and how often an inspection is performed.

Facility Requirements

The facility shall not be constructed on less than five (5) contiguous acres of property owned or leased by the applicant. If leased, the lease shall be for a term of not less than one year from the date of application and such lease is subject to initial and annual review and approval by USZA.

• The facility shall have a caging no closer than 8 feet from the property line with an 8 feet high perimeter fence between the property line and the caging but with the outer perimeter fence 8 feet from the caging nearest the property line.

• The cages of the facility shall be bounded (outer perimeter fence) by a fence of not less than eight (8) feet in height, constructed of not less than 11 1/2 gauge chain link, or equivalent, to prevent escape from the property of any wildlife that may escape the primary caging.

• Public safety barriers must be at least four (4) feet high and a minimum of three (3) feet from all cages and must be constructed in a manor that will prevent any person or animal from crawling through the barrier.

• Private owners requirments – The caging standards remain the same as any facility requirements except their is no lang requirement and the perimeter fence must be at least 6 foot high of either privacy wood fence and or chain link with the cage 3 foot from the perimeter fence. The purpose for this section is to protect the animal from the outside public.

• Big cats and bears must be with an 8 foot perimeter fence surrounding the cage which must sit 3 foot from the fence.

General Regulations of Captive Wildlife

For the purpose of this section, the following definitions apply:

• Paddocks: Areas enclosed by fencing, railing or other USZA-approved structures which allow animals to graze or browse.

• Reptile enclosures: Areas encompassed by smooth walls or other USZA-approved materials which provide safe keeping of venomous and non-venomous snakes, Crocodilians and other reptiles.

• Open air habitats or moated areas: Areas enclosed by USZA approved fences, walls, or moats which provide safe containment of species.

No person shall maintain captive wildlife in any unsafe or unsanitary condition, or in a manner which results in threats to public safety, or the maltreatment or neglect of such wildlife.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Caging Requirement

• Cages or enclosures housing captive wildlife shall be sufficiently strong to prevent escape and to protect the caged animal from injury, and shall be equipped with structural safety barriers to prevent any physical contact with the caged animal by the public.

• Structural barriers may be constructed from materials such as fencing, moats, landscaping, or close-mesh wire, provided that materials used are safe and effective in preventing public contact.

• All cages or enclosures less than 600 square feet shall be covered at the top to prevent escape (except paddocks, reptile enclosures and habitats specified below). Class I or Class II wildlife shall not be kept in uncovered enclosures that are less than 600 square feet.

• Caging considered unsafe or otherwise not in compliance herewith shall not be approved by USZA.

Public Contact

Unconfined captive wildlife shall be maintained under rigid supervision and control, so as to prevent injuries to members of the public. No captive wildlife shall be tethered outdoors unsupervised. To provide for public safety, all wildlife shall be controlled in such a manner as to prevent physical contact with the public, except as follows:

Public Contact Exhibition

General: All wildlife that will be used for contact with the public shall have been evaluated by the exhibitor to insure compatibility with the uses intended. All wildlife shall be exhibited in a manner that prevents injuries to the public and the wildlife. The exhibitor shall take reasonable sanitary precautions to minimize the possibility of disease or parasite transmission which could adversely affect the health or welfare of citizens or wildlife.

Class I wildlife shall only be permitted to come into physical contact with the public in accordance with the following:

Full contact: For the purpose of this section, full contact is defined as situations in which an exhibitor or employee handler maintains proximate control and supervision, while temporarily surrendering physical possession or custody of the animal to another. Full contact with Class I wildlife is authorized only as follows:

• Class I cats (Felidae only) that weigh not more than twenty-five (25) pounds;
• Chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas that are not less than six (6) months of age and weigh not more than twenty-five pounds;
• Gibbons and Siamangs not less than four (4) months of age and not more than two (2) years of age.
• Elephants as approved.

Incidental contact: For the purpose of this section, incidental contact is defined as situations in which an exhibitor or employee handler maintains control, possession and supervision of the animal while permitting the public to come into contact with it. Incidental contact with Class I wildlife is authorized only as follows:

• Class I carnivores that weigh not more than 40 pounds; (under the age of 12 wks)
• Chimpanzees, orangutans, and gorillas that are not less than six (6) months of age and weigh not more than 40 pounds;
• Gibbons and Siamangs that are not less than four (4) months of age: no maximum poundage or age limit.
• Elephants

• Public contact or handling intervals for Class I wildlife shall be limited as to frequency, intensity, and duration so that such handling will not adversely effect the health, welfare, or safety of the animals, nor expose the public to injury.
• Any condition which results in wildlife escaping from its enclosure, cage, leash, or other constraint, or which results in injury to any person, shall not be allowed.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Sanitation and Nutritional Requirements

• Sanitation, water disposal, and waste disposal shall be in accordance with all applicable local, state, and federal regulations.
• Water: Clean drinking water shall be provided as often in a day accordance with the type of animal, and weather conditions to make sure that animal’s health and well-being is at no risk. Any water containers used shall be clean. Reptiles and amphibians that do not drink water from containers and those in an inactive season or period shall be provided water in a manner and at such intervals as to ensure their health and welfare. All pools, tanks, water areas and water containers provided for swimming, wading or drinking shall be clean, free of excess hair, dirt, mold and hot water. Enclosures shall provide drainage for surface water and runoff.
• Food: Food shall be of a type and quantity that meets the nutritional requirements for the particular species, and shall be provided in an unspoiled and uncontaminated condition. Clean containers shall be used for feeding.
• Waste: Fecal and food waste shall be removed from inside, under, and around cages and stored or disposed of in a manner which prevents noxious odors or pests. Cages and enclosures shall be ventilated to prevent noxious odors.
• Cleaning and maintenance: Hard floors within cages or enclosures shall be sanitized a minimum of once weekly. Walls of cages and enclosures shall be spot cleaned daily. The surfaces of housing facilities, including perches, shelves and any furniture-type fixtures within the facility, shall be sanitized weekly, and shall be constructed in a manner and made of materials that permits thorough cleaning. Any surface of cages or enclosures that may come into contact with animal(s) shall be free of excessive rust that prevents the required cleaning or that affects the structural strength.
• Food preparation areas shall be a closed area that allows minimum risk of flies and vermin to get into or around food and food storage areas and shall not be in the same building where any animals are kept. Food should be stored off the floor and in a cool dry place to prevent spoilage. All perishable foods need to be kept in cold storage. No rotten fruit or veggies should be fed to any animal.
• High grass and weeds are to be kept to a minimum.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Structural Caging Requirements for Class I, II and III Wildlife

In addition to the standard caging requirements set forth above, Class I and Class II animals shall be caged in accordance with the following requirements:

• A fence sufficient to deter entry by the public, which shall be a minimum of four (4) feet in height, shall be present around the premises wherein Class I or Class II animals are housed or exercised outdoors.
• All cages or enclosures of Class I and Class II animals except paddocks, approved open air habitats, or outdoor reptile enclosures shall be equipped with a safety entrance. A safety entrance is defined as a protected, secure area that can be entered by a keeper that prevents animal escape and safeguards the keeper, or a device that can be activated by a keeper that prevents animal escape and safeguards entry. Such entrances shall include: A double-door mechanism, interconnecting cages, a lock-down area, or other comparable devices, subject to USZA approval, that will prevent escape and safeguard the keeper. Safety entrances shall be constructed of materials that are of equivalent strength as that prescribed for cage construction for that particular species.
• All cages or enclosures constructed of chain link or other approved materials shall be well braced and securely anchored at ground level to prevent escape by digging or erosion. Cages shall be constructed using metal clamps, welds, ties or braces of equivalent strength as the material required for cage construction for the particular species. (staples and bailing wire are not sufficient.)

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Additional Requirements For Specific Species

Chimpanzees (over 50 pounds), Gorillas, Orangutans
• Outdoor facilities — Cage construction materials shall consist of steel bars, or double panel fence 6-gauge to prevent escape in case of fence breaking, two-inch galvanized pipe, masonry block or their strength equivalent.
• Indoor facilities – Shall be constructed of the same as 1 except the substrate should be of a material that can be cleaned daily and sanitized once per week. Sleeping perches shall be provided so the animal does not have to be on the floor.
• Chimpanzees (up to 50 pounds), drills, mandrills, baboons, snow leopards, jaguars, tigers, lions, bears.
• Outdoor facilities — Cage construction materials shall consist of not less than six (6) gauge chain link or equivalent.
• Indoor facilities — Shall be constructed of the same as 1 except the substrate should be of a material that can be cleaned daily and sanitized once per week. Sleeping perches shall be provided so the animal does not have to be on the floor.

Rhinoceros, Elephants, Hippopotamus, Cape Buffalos
• Indoor and outdoor facilities — Construction materials shall consist of steel bars, cable, pipe, masonry block or equivalent.

Crocodiles, Gavials, Alligators, Caimans, Komodo Dragons
• Outdoor facilities — Bounded by a fence at least five feet in height and an incline of 2 feet at a 45 degree angle of not less than 11 1⁄2-gauge chain link or equivalent.

Siamangs, Patas Monkeys, Howler Monkeys, Uakaris, Mangabeys, Guenons, Bearded Sakis, Guereza Monkeys, Lndris, Langurs, Proboscis Monkeys, Spider Monkeys, Woolly Monkeys, Capuchin Monkeys, Ocelots, Servals, Lynx, Bobcats, Caracals, African Golden Cats, Temminck’s Golden Cats, Fishing Cats, Wolves, Coyotes, Asiatic Jackals, Indian Dholes, African Hunting Dogs, Binturongs and Old World Badgers.

• Outdoor facilities — Construction material shall consist of not less than 11 1⁄2-gauge chain link or equivalent.
• Indoor facilities — Shall be constructed of the same as 1 except the substrate should be of a material that can be cleaned daily and sanitized once per week. Sleeping perches shall be provided so the animal does not have to be on the floor.

Gibbons, Celebes Black Apes, Macaques, Leopards, Cougars, Clouded Leopards and Cheetahs

• Outdoor facilities — Construction material shall consist of not less than 9-gauge chain link or equivalent.
• Indoor facilities — Shall be constructed of the same as 1 except the substrate should be of a material that can be cleaned daily and sanitized once per week. Sleeping perches shall be provided so the animal does not have to be on the floor.

Wolverines, Honey Badgers, American Badgers and Hyenas.

• Outdoor facilities — Cage construction materials shall consist of not less than nine-gauge chain link or equivalent.
• Indoor facilities — Shall be constructed of the same as 1 except the substrate should be of a material that can be cleaned daily and sanitized once per week. Sleeping perches shall be provided so the animal does not have to be on the floor.

Ostrich, Cassowary, Emus, Rheas

• Outdoor facilities — Bounded by a fence of at least six feet in height of not less than 11 1⁄2-gauge chain link or equivalent.

Class III Mammals (except Spider, Woolly, and Capuchin Monkeys) and Varanidae (except Komodo dragon)

• Outdoor facilities–Cage construction materials shall consist of not less than 11/2-gauge wire or strength equivalent material.
• Indoor facilities–Rooms may serve as enclosures provided that:
•  Construction materials equal or exceed the strength equivalent for outside caging.
• Potential escape routes are secured, or the animal is supervised to ensure against escape. Shall be constructed of the same as 1 except the substrate should be of a material that can be cleaned daily and sanitized once per week. Sleeping perches shall be provided so the animal does not have to be on the floor.
• The size of the room(s) equals or exceeds that required for cages and enclosures.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Standard Caging Requirements for Captive Wildlife

No captive wildlife shall be confined in any cage or other enclosure which contains more individual animals, or is smaller in dimension than as specified in this section, or is not equipped as specified in this section, or as authorized in accordance with the following:

• Requests for deviations from standard caging or enclosure requirements may be granted to allow for different size configuration (length, width and height) if the required square footage is present and if the locomotory needs of the animal(s) are not compromised. Wet or dry moats may be substituted for the required fencing for retaining some species of wildlife. Any proposed deviations from the standard caging or enclosure requirements, or proposals to use wet or dry moats to substitute for fencing, must be approved in writing by UAPPEAL.

Definitions: Where specified in this section, wildlife cages and enclosures shall be equipped to provide for the protection and welfare of the animals. Such equipment includes, but is not limited to:

• Shelter, nest box or den: A structure that protects captive wildlife from the elements (weather conditions). Such structures may vary in size depending on the security and biological needs of the species. They are particularly described as follows:
• Nest box or den: An enclosed shelter that provides a retreat area within, attached to, or adjacent to or within a cage or enclosure of specified size, which shall provide protection from the elements and from extremes in temperature that are detrimental to the health and welfare of the animal.
• Elevated platform or perching area: A surface or structure, either natural or man-made, positioned above the floor, or above the grade level of the cage or enclosure, that will provide a resting area for the animal(s). This should be made of material that can be cleaned and sanitized as needed, kept in good repair, and free from splinters, and made of a material to prevent over heating.
• Gnawing and chewing items: Natural or artificial materials that provide for the health of teeth, so as to keep teeth sharp, wear down enamel and promote general oral hygiene. Gnawing items include, but are not limited to, logs and trees. Chewing items include, but are not limited to, woody stems, knuckle bones, and rawhide objects; suitability dependent upon species.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Primates

Additional cage or enclosure requirements for primates:
In addition to requirements of this section, each cage or enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, boxes, balls, mirrors or foraging items.

Prosimians

Small (e.g., bush babies, loris, potto, angwantibo, tarsiers, and mouse, dwarf, forked, marked, and sportive lemurs)
• For one or two animals, a cage 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosures simultaneously.
• Each cage shall also have climbing apparatus.

Medium (e.g., lemurs: ruffed, cata, true, gentle, avahi, aye-aye)
• For one or two animals, a cage 8 feet by 8 feet, 10 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that will accommodate all animal(s) in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall also have climbing apparatus.

Large (e.g., sifakas, indris)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 10 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall also include climbing apparatus.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

New World Monkeys

Tamrins and Marmosets
• For one or two animals, a cage 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall also include climbing apparatus.

Squirrels, Titis, Owls, Talapoins and similar sized Monkeys
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 6 feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching areas and nest box(es) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall also have climbing apparatus.

Medium-sized New World monkeys (e.g., Capuchins, Sakis, Uakaris)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and shelter(s) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall also have climbing apparatus.

Large Arboreal Monkeys (e.g., Howlers, Spiders and Woolly)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 10 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and shelter(s) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall also have horizontal climbing apparatus.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Old World Monkeys

Macaques, Guenons, Mangabeys, Patas, Languars, Colobus, Proboscis, Simakobu, Snub-nosed and similar sized Monkeys
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 15 feet, 10 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and shelter(s) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have horizontal climbing apparatus.

Baboons, Mandrills and Drills
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 20 feet, 10 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and shelter(s) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have horizontal climbing apparatus.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Apes

Gibbons and siamangs
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 20 feet, 10 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and shelter(s) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have horizontal climbing apparatus.
• Wet moats may be substituted for the required fencing provided USZA written approval has been obtained. For island exhibits, wet moats shall be used that are no less than 24 feet wide, with 50 percent of the water having a depth twice the height of the tallest animal.

Chimpanzees and Orangutans
• For one or two animals, a cage 20 feet by 20 feet, 12 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 50 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and shelter(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have horizontal climbing apparatus
• Wet or dry moats may be substituted for the required fencing provided USZA written approval has been obtained. For island exhibits, wet moats shall be used that are no less than 24 feet wide, with 50 percent of the water having a depth twice the height of the tallest animal.

Gorillas
• For one or two animals, a cage 30 feet by 30 feet, 12 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 50 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have a platform(s) large enough to accommodate all animals simultaneously; such platform(s) shall be elevated three feet. Each cage shall also have shelter(s) large enough to accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.
• Wet or dry moats may be substituted for the required fencing provided USZA written approval has been obtained. For island exhibits, wet moats shall be used that are no less than 24 feet wide, with 50 percent of the water having a depth twice the height of the tallest animal.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Carnivores and Certain Omnivores with Similar Requirements

• In addition to requirements of this section, each cage or enclosure shall be equipped with a shelter(s)/nest box(es) large enough to accommodate all the animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, boxes, balls, bones, barrels, drums, rawhide, pools, etc.

Wild Felines

African lions and Asian tigers
• For one or two animals, a cage 20 feet by 20 feet by 8 feet high, covered enclosure. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animal(s) simultaneously. Each cage shall have a claw log, unless the animal(s) front claws have been removed.
• Outdoor cages over 600 square feet (uncovered) shall have vertical jump walls with an overhang at least 10 feet high, with a 2-foot, 45 degree, inward angle overhang and the inward angle fencing shall be made of the same material as the vertical fencing or jump walls without an overhang at least 12 feet high with the top 7 feet being made of 2x4 wire mesh. Wet or dry moats may be substituted for the required fencing provided USZA written approval has been obtained.

Jaguars, Leopards and Cougars
• For one or two animals, a cage 20 feet by 20 feet by 8 feet high, covered enclosure. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have a claw log, unless the animal(s) front claws have been removed.
• Jaguars, leopards, and cougars shall not be kept in uncovered enclosures except in facilities with wet or dry moats, which have been USZA approved in writing.

Lesser ats (e.g., Bobcats, Lynx, Ocelots, Caracal, Serval, Margay, Fishing Cats, Jungle Cats, Teminick’s Cats, Golden Cats)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high, covered enclosure. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have a claw log, unless the animal(s) front claws have been removed.

Small cats (e.g., Geoffroy’s Cats, Jaguarundis, Leopard Cats, Wildcats (Felis Silvestris), Mountain Cats, Pampas Cats, Marbled Cats, Pallas’ Cats, Sand Cats, Oncilla/Tiger Cats, Black-footed Cats, Flat-headed Cats, Kodkods and Rusty-spotted Cats.

• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high , covered enclosure. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have a claw log, unless the animal(s) front claws have been removed.

Cheetahs
• For one or two animals, a cage 40 feet by 20 feet, 8 feet high, covered enclosure. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Bears

• In addition to the requirements of this section, each cage or enclosure shall be equipped with a shelter(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, boxes, balls, bones, barrels, drums, climbing apparatus, foraging items, etc.

Black bears, Asiatic, Sloth, Spectacled, Sun Bears
• For one animal, a cage 20 feet by 20 feet, 8 feet high roofed. Outdoor cages over 600 square feet (uncovered) for bears shall have vertical jump walls at least 10 feet high, with a 2-foot, 45 degree, inward angle overhang. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor space.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) for resting. Each cage shall have a 4 foot by 6 foot pool of water, 3 feet deep.

Brown Bears (e.g. European, Grizzly, Kodiak) and Polar Bears
• For one animal, a cage 30 feet by 30 feet, 10 feet high with vertical jump walls at least 10 feet high, with a 2-foot, 45 degree, inward angle overhang and the inward angle fencing shall be made of the same material as the vertical fencing or jump walls without an overhang at least 12 feet high with the top 7 feet being made of 2x4 wire mesh. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor space.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) for resting. Each cage shall have a 6 foot by 10 foot pool of water, 4 feet deep, except for polar bears, which shall have a 10 foot by 10 foot pool, 5 feet deep.

Raccoons, Coati-mundis, Olingos, Kinkajous, Ringtail (Cacomistles)

• In addition to the requirements for this section, each cage or enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, boxes, balls, mirrors, climbing apparatus, foraging items, etc.

• For up to two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high, enclosed top. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor space.
Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Pandas (red)

• In addition to the requirements for this section, each cage or enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, climbing apparatus, foraging/browse items, pools of water, etc.

• For one animal, a cage 20 feet by 20 feet by 12 feet high, enclosed top. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.
• Shelter must be provided at all times to protect animals from excessive heat.

Badgers, Weasels and Polecats, Skunks, Fishers, Ferrets, Otters, Wolverines, Minks, Martins, Civets, Genets, Mongoose, and Binturong.

• In addition to the requirements for this section, each cage or enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, boxes, balls, PVC tubing, etc. Each cage shall have a shelter(s)/den(s)/nest box(es) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Small (e.g. Ferrets, Weasels, Polecats and Skunks)
• For one or two animals, a cage 5 feet by 5 feet, 3 feet high, enclosed top. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall be equipped with chewing items.

Arboreal (e.g. Martins, Fishers, Genets, small or medium Vivets)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high, enclosed top. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall be equipped with perching areas, climbing apparatus, and chewing items.

Medium (e.g. Badger)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high, enclosed top. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have chewing items and an area of sufficient depth to provide for digging.

Large (e.g, Wolverine, Binturong, African Civet
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high, enclosed top. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.

Aquatic (e.g. Common River Otters, Sea Otters, Giant River Otter). For Sea Otters, specifications will be as required by Federal regulations.

• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high, enclosed top. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor space.
• Each cage shall have a 8 foot by 4 foot pool of water, 2.5 feet deep. For each additional animal, increase pool size by 25 percent of original pool area. Dry resting areas shall be provided.

Carnivores and Certain Omnivores with Similar Requirements

• In addition to the requirements for this section, each cage or enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, boxes, balls, PVC tubing, browse, etc. Each cage shall have shelters or nest box(es) that will accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Rodents

Small Aquatic Rodents (e.g., Florida Water Rat and Muskrat)
• For one or two animals, a cage 5 feet by 5 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have a pool of water, 2 feet by 2 feet, 1 foot deep.
• Each cage shall have gnawing items.

Medium Aquatic Rodents (e.g. Nutria, Mountain Beaver)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 8 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor space.
• Each cage shall have a pool of water, 3 feet by 2 feet, 2 feet deep.
• Each cage shall have gnawing items.

Large Aquatic Rodents (e.g. Capybara, Beaver)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor space.
• Each cage shall have a 6 foot by 8 foot pool of water, 3 feet deep. For each additional animal, increase the pool size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have gnawing items.

Large Rodents (e.g., Porcupines, Cavies, Paca, Pacarana, Agoutis, Cavies, Paca, Cacarana, Agoutis and similar sized ground dwelling Rodents)
• For one or animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have gnawing items.

South and North American Porcupines
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have gnawing items, perching areas and climbing apparatus.

Old World Porcupines (e.g. Crested, Bush Tailed and similar sized animals)
• For one to two animals, a cage 8 feet by 8 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have gnawing items and browse. Each cage shall also have perching areas and climbing apparatus except for crested porcupines.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Squirrels and Tree Shrews

Arboreal Squirrels/Tree Shrews
• For up to two animals, a cage 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have climbing apparatus and gnawing items.

Terrestrial Squirrels (Small Prairie Dogs and chipmunks)
• For up to two animals, a cage 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have gnawing items

Large (e.g. Marmots, Ground Hogs)
• For up to two animals, a cage 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Cage floors shall have an area of sufficient depth that provides for digging. Each cage shall have gnawing items.

Wild rabbits, Hares, and Picas

• For up to two animals, a cage 6 feet by 6 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have gnawing items.

Wild Canids

• In addition to the requirements of this section, each cage or enclosure shall be equipped with a shelter(s)/den(s) that shall accommodate all the animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to boxes, balls, bones, barrels, drums, rawhide, pools, etc.

Foxes, small (e.g. Fennec, Kit)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Foxes (e.g. Red, Grey, Arctic, Bat Eared, Bush Dogs)
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Wolves (e.g. Gray Wolf, except Red Wolf), Maned Wolf, Hyenas, African Wild Dogs, Cape Hunting Dogs
• For one or two animals, a cage 20 feet by 20 feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.
• Outdoor cages over 600 square feet (uncovered) shall have vertical jump walls at least 8 feet high, with a 45 degree inward angle overhang 2 feet wide, or, jump walls without an overhang being 10 feet high with the top 5 ft being 2x4 wire mesh.

Coyotes, Jackals, Asian Wild Dogs, Red Wolves, Dingoes
• For one or two animals, a cage 20 feet by 10 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have an elevated platform(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.
• Outdoor cages over 600 square feet (uncovered) shall have vertical jump walls at least 8 feet high with a 45 degree, inward angle overhang 2 feet wide, or jump walls without an overhang being 10 feet high with the top 5 ft being 2x4 wire mesh.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Marsupials

• In addition to requirements of this section, each enclosure shall be equipped with a shelter(s) or nest box(es) that shall accommodate all the animals in the enclosure simultaneously. When vegetation or landscaping is available to serve as protection from the elements, access to a shelter shall also be provided during inclement weather conditions. Such shelter shall be attached to or adjacent to the paddock, habitat, or within the enclosure. Each paddock, habitat, or enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, browsing and grazing material. All digging animals should have enclosure walls with an additional 4 feet buried underground.

Kangaroo (e.g, Red and Grey)
• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 625 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase the cage by 25 percent of original floor area.

Walleroos and large Wallabies (e.g., Rock Wallabies and similar sized species)
• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 500 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase the cage by 25 percent of original floor area.

Hare Wallabies, Forest Wallabies (e.g. Dama, Potorros, Rat Kangaroos and similar sized species)
• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 100 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase the cage by 25 percent of original floor area.

Tree Kangaroos (arboreal)
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have horizontal climbing apparatus.

Ringtail Opossums, Gliders, Pygmy Possums, Brush tail Possums, Cuscus, Bandicoots

Small (e.g. Pygmy Opossums)
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 3 feet by 3 feet, 6 feet high enclosed, For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor space.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have a horizontal climbing apparatus.

Gliders (e.g. Sugar Glider and Family Petauridae)
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 3 feet by 3 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have a horizontal climbing apparatus.

Ring tail Possums (Family Pseudocheiridae)
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have a horizontal climbing apparatus.

Cuscuses and Brush tail Possums (Phalangeridae)
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have a horizontal climbing apparatus.

Bandicoots
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Marsupial Carnivores (Dasyuridae)

Small (e.g. 3 striped Marsupial Mouse)
• For one or two animals, a covered cage or enclosure 1 foot by 2 feet, 1 foot high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.

Large (e.g. Tasmanian Tiger Cat, Tasmanian Devil, Marsupial Cat)
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 4 feet by 6 feet, 4 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.

American (New World) Opossums/Possums and Honey Possum

Small (e.g. Mouse Opossums, Honey Possum: Tarsipes rostratus)
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 4 feet by 4 feet, 2 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have horizontal climbing apparatus.

Large (e.g. American, Yapok, Four-eyed, Woolly, Bushy-tailed and similar sized animals)
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have horizontal climbing apparatus.

Wombats
For one or two animals, a cage, enclosure, or paddock 10 feet by 10 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.

Koalas
• Indoor facilities with natural light sources such as windows and skylights shall be provided. Temperature extremes shall be avoided. The ambient temperature shall not be lower than 55F nor exceed 85F.
• For one or two animals, a cage, or enclosure, 10 feet by 10 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and horizontal climbing apparatus.
• Shade must be provided at all times and such animals must be protected from the heat.

Hedgehogs, Tenrecs, and Solendons

• For one or two animals, a cage 2 feet by 2 feet, 2 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage length by 50 percent.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Edentates (e.g. Armadillos, Pangolins, Anteaters, Sloth)

All armadillos except Giant Armadillo
• For one or two animals, a cage or enclosure, 6 feet by 6 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase the cage length by 25 percent.
• Cage floors shall include an area of sufficient depth to provide for digging. Each cage shall be provided with a den(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Giant Armadillo
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 12 feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase the cage length by 25 percent.
• Cage floors shall include an area of sufficient depth to provide for digging. Each cage shall be provided with a den(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Pangolin
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet, by 10 feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Cage floors shall include an area of sufficient depth to provide for digging. Climbing apparatus shall be provided for arboreal species. A pool or tub of water shall be provided that shall accommodate the animal(s). Each cage shall be provided with a den(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Anteaters and Aardvarks

Small Anteaters
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 10 feet, 8 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage length by 25 percent.
• Cage floor shall include an area of sufficient depth to provide for digging. Climbing apparatus shall be provided for arboreal species. Each cage shall be provided with arboreal nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

Giant Anteaters and Aardvarks
• For one or two animals, a cage 10 feet by 12 feet, 6 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage size by 25 percent of original floor area.
• Cage floor shall include an area of sufficient depth to provide for digging. Climbing apparatus shall be provided for arboreal species. Each cage shall be provided with a den(s) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously

Sloth (e.g. Two-toed and Three-toed)

• In addition to the requirements for this section, each cage or enclosure shall have an accessible device to provide physical stimulation or manipulation compatible with the species. Such device shall be non-injurious, and may include, but is not limited to, natural or artificial trees, tree limbs, etc. Each cage shall have a shelter(s) or den(s) or nest box(es).

• For one or two animals, a cage 6 feet by 6 feet, 8 feet high enclosed. For each additional animal, increase the cage length by 25 percent.
• Each cage shall have perching area(s) and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have horizontal climbing apparatus large enough to accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously running water for drinking.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Bats

Bats with a wingspread from 2-6 feet
• For up to 6 animals, an enclosure 20 feet by 20 feet, 8 feet high enclosed. Each enclosure shall be designed to encourage uninterrupted flight by incorporating a center structure to impede cross flights. The available flight area shall be no less than 1.5 times the wingspread of the largest bat in the enclosure. The center structure may incorporate nest boxes, feeding stations, trees, resting shelves, perches, columns, etc. For each additional animal, increase the enclosure size by 15 percent of the original floor area.
• Each cage shall have perching areas and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have climbing apparatus.

Bats with a wingspread less than 2 feet
• The enclosure shall be large enough to permit aerial maneuvering within the enclosure.
• Each cage shall have perching areas and nest box(es) that shall accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously. Each cage shall have climbing apparatus.

Odd-and even-toed animals

• In addition to the enclosure requirements for this paragraph, each enclosure shall have a shelter(s).

Equids (e.g. Zebras and Asses) and large noncusorial Bovids (e.g., wild cattle, African Buffalo, Bison)

• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 1,250 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.

Cervids (Deer family) and Cursorial Bovids (Antelope)

Large (e.g. Elk, Sambar, Red Deer, Sable Antelope, Eland, Wildebeest, and Deer and Antelope of similar size)
• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 1,250 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.

Medium (e.g. White-tailed, Fallow, Axis, Sika, Pronghorn, Deer and Antelope of similar size)
• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 1,000 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.

Small (e.g. Roe, Dikdik, Muntjac, Brocket, Pudu, Chinese Water Deer, Musk Deer, Deer and Antelope of similar size)
VFor one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 650 square feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.

Camelids (e.g. Vicuna and Guanaco)

• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 1250 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.

Giraffes (okapi)

• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 2500 square feet,10 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.

Tapirs

• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 900 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.
• Each enclosure shall have a pool of water, 60 square feet, 3 feet deep, equipped with a ramp or steps. For each additional animal, increase pool surface area by 25 percent of original area.

Wild Swine (Suidae) and Peccaries

• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 200 square feet, 6 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.

Wild goats/sheep (Caprinae) (e.g., Musk Ox, Goral, Serow, Takin)

• For one or two animals, a paddock enclosing 900 square feet, 8 feet high. For each additional animal, increase paddock by 25 percent of the original footage.

Elephants

Non-performing

• For one animal in a non-performing static facility, a paddock enclosing 2,500 square feet, 8 feet high, with access to a shelter. For each additional animal, increase paddock size by 50 percent of the original area. Elephants which are tethered within such enclosure shall be provided with daily unrestrained movement periods, unless daily tethering is necessary due to the following situations:
• Elephant needs restraining due to a training period;
• Elephant is aggressive toward people or other animals in the compound;
• Elephant is undergoing medical treatment or research
• Elephant is restrained for security or breeding purposes
• Constant tethering shall not exceed 14 days without a written justification from a veterinarian. • Tethering shall permit normal postural movement of the elephant.

Performing

• For one performing animal, a paddock enclosing not less than 700 square feet, 8 feet high, with access to a shelter. For each additional performing animal, increase paddock size by 50 percent of the original area. Elephants may be tethered in such enclosure, however, such restraint shall permit normal postural movements.

• No facility shall utilize the performing elephant paddock dimensions prior to written approval by UAPPEAL. To obtain such approval, the facility shall provide written documentation to UAPPEAL of exercise intervals and scheduled performances. The exercise intervals shall be of such frequency, intensity and duration as to provide for the health and welfare of the animal over an extended period. Such information shall be verifiable by USZA through inspections.

• When not kept in a paddock, performing, or being exercised, elephants shall either be (1) tethered, or (2) enclosed by an electric fence under the direct, on site, supervision of at least one qualified trainer/handler in an area not accessible to the public.

Rhinos

• For one animal, a paddock enclosing 2,500 square feet, 5 feet high. For each additional animal, increase the paddock by 50 percent of original paddock area. All caging material must be sufficient for the species.
• Access to a shelter shall be provided at all times.

Hippopotamus (e.g., Nile and pygmy)

Nile
• For one animal, a paddock enclosing 2,500 square feet, 5 feet high, with a pool of water, 120 square feet, 5 feet deep, equipped with a ramp or steps. For each additional animal, increase paddock and pool surface area by 50 percent of original area. All caging material must be sufficient for the species.
• Access to a shelter shall be provided.

Pygmy
• For up to two animals, a paddock enclosing 1200 square feet, 5 feet high, with a pool of water 80 square feet, 3 feet deep, equipped with a ramp or steps. For each additional animal, increase paddock and pool surface area by 25 percent of original area. All caging material must be sufficient for the species.
• Access to a shelter shall be provided.

Reptiles
• In addition to requirements of this section, each enclosure shall be provided with an environment or devices that allow for temperature regulation necessary to insure the well-being of the species. The environment or devices shall be non-injurious, and may include, but are not limited to hot rocks, artificial lights, natural sunlight and heat strips. Each enclosure shall be provided with a non-injurious substrate such as newspaper, processed wood shavings, rocks, sand or indoor-outdoor carpet. Such substrate shall be disposed of or sanitized at intervals sufficient to insure the health of the animal(s).

Snakes and Glass Lizards

• In addition to requirements of this section, each enclosure shall be provided with an environment or devices that allow for temperature regulation necessary to insure the well-being of the species. The environment or devices shall be non-injurious, and may include, but are not limited to hot rocks, artificial lights, natural sunlight and heat strips. Each enclosure shall be provided with a non-injurious substrate such as newspaper, processed wood shavings, rocks, sand or indoor-outdoor carpet. Such substrate shall be disposed of or sanitized at intervals sufficient to insure the health of the animal(s).

• Enclosure sizes for all snakes and glass lizards shall be based upon the length of the longest specimen in the enclosure.
• For up to two specimens, a cage or enclosure having a perimeter equal to the length of the longest specimen, the width of the cage shall not be less than 20 percent of the length of the longest specimen. The width of the enclosure shall not be required to exceed 3 feet. For each additional specimen, increase perimeter by 10 percent.

Lizards (other than Glass Lizards)

• In addition to requirements of this section, each enclosure shall be provided with an environment or devices that allow for temperature regulation necessary to ensure the well-being of the species. The environment and devices shall be non-injurious, and may include, but are not limited to hot rocks, artificial lights, natural sunlight and heat strips. Each enclosure shall be provided with a non-injurious substrate, such as gravel, newspaper, processed wood shavings, rocks, sand, or indoor-outdoor carpet. Such substrate shall be disposed of or sanitized at intervals sufficient to insure the health of the animal(s).

Lizards up to 6 inches in length
• For one or two lizards, a cage 12 inches by 8 inches, 6 inches high. For each additional lizard, increase size by one inch in length and width.

Lizards 7 to 12 inches in length
• For one or two lizards, a cage 20 inches by 10 inches, 12 inches high. For each additional lizard, increase size by two inches in length and width.

Lizards 13 to 24 inches in length
• For one or two lizards, an enclosure 30 inches by 12 inches, 12 inches high. For each additional lizard, increase size by three inches in length and width.

Lizards 25 to 36 inches in length
• For one or two lizards an enclosure 36 inches by 12 inches, 16 inches high. For each additional lizard, increase enclosure size by 10 inches or 25 percent in length and width.

Lizards 37 inches to 6 feet in length
• For one or two lizards, an enclosure 6 feet by 3 feet, 4 feet high. For each additional lizard, increase the enclosure by 25 percent of the original floor area.

Lizards over 6 feet in length
• For one or two lizards, an enclosure 9 feet by 6 feet, 4.5 feet high. For each additional lizard, increase the enclosure by 25 percent of original floor area.

Turtles (other than Tortoises and Box Turtles)

• In addition to requirements of this section, each enclosure shall be provided with an environment or devices that allow for temperature regulation necessary to insure the well-being of the species. The environment and devices shall be non-injurious, and may include, but are not limited to artificial lights and natural sunlight. Each enclosure shall be provided with a non-injurious substrate, such as gravel, rocks or sand. Each enclosure shall have a pool of water that will allow submersion of the largest turtle. For soft-shelled turtles, a non-abrasive pool bottom is required.

• Enclosure sizes for all turtles shall be based upon the size of the largest specimen in the enclosure.
• For one or two turtles, a enclosure with an area at least five times the shell length, by two times the shell width of the largest turtle. The pool area shall equal no less than two times the shell width, by two times the shell length of the largest turtle. A dry resting area equal to the size of the shell of the largest turtle shall be provided. For each additional specimen, increase original floor and pool area by 10 percent.

Tortoises and Box Turtles

• In addition to requirements of this section, each enclosure shall be provided with an environment or devices that allow for temperature regulation necessary to insure the well-being of the species. The environment and devices shall be non-injurious, and may include, but are not limited to artificial lights and natural sunlight. Each cage shall be provided with a non-injurious substrate, such as gravel, rocks, newspaper, sand or indoor-outdoor carpet. Such substrate shall be kept clean.

• Enclosure sizes for all tortoises and box turtles shall be based upon the size of the largest specimen in the enclosures.
• For one or two tortoises or box turtles, an enclosure with a floor area 10 times the shell size of the largest specimen in the enclosure. For additional specimens, the floor area available for movement shall be twice the floor area covered by the combined body mass of all animals in the enclosure.

Crocodilians

• For one animal, an enclosure of sufficient size to permit moving and turning both on a dry area and in a pool of water, the water being of sufficient depth to permit submersion.
• For additional animals, the combined area covered by all their bodies shall not exceed 50 percent of enclosure area.

Amphibians

• Aquatic amphibians shall be kept in water filled tanks, or aquaria. Semi-aquatic amphibians shall be kept in enclosures, tanks, or aquaria, with a water area and a dry area that shall permit moving and turning. Both the dry area and the water area shall provide room to accommodate all animals in the enclosure simultaneously.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Birds

• Perching birds shall be provided with a perch of a diameter sufficient to prevent the meeting of the bird’s claws, and of sufficient height to prevent floor contact. Perches and perching areas shall be sufficient to accommodate all birds in the enclosure simultaneously. Perches shall be constructed in a manner and of materials that provide for effective cleaning or replacement to insure the health of the birds. Enclosures shall be provided with shelter(s).

Psittacine and small Passerines

Large (e.g. Large Cockatoos, Large Macaws, including Palm Cockatoos, Green-winged Macaws, Toucans, Toucanets and similar sized birds)
• For one or two birds, a cage providing space sufficient to permit perching without the tail feathers touching the floor and provide for head clearance with normal posturing, with a minimum cage dimension to allow full extension of both wings. These measurements shall be based on the largest bird in the enclosure. For each additional bird, increase perimeter by 25 percent.

Medium (e.g., medium-sized Parrots, Lories and large Conjures including Amazons, Patagonian and similar sized birds)
• For one or two birds, a cage 3 feet by 3 feet, 4 feet high. For each additional bird, increase perimeter by 25 percent.

Small (e.g. Parrots, Cockatiels, Lories and Parakeets)
• For up to four birds, a cage 2 foot by 2 feet, 3 feet high. For each additional bird, increase perimeter by 25 percent.

Very-small (e.g. Canaries, Finches, and similar-sized birds (except Hummingbirds)
• For up to 2 birds, a cage 20 inches by 20 inches, 24 inches high. For each additional bird, increase perimeter by 25 percent.

Hummingbirds and Sunbirds
• For up to 5 birds, a cage 4 feet by 4 feet by 6 feet high. For each additional bird, increase original floor area by 10 percent.

Small and medium Passerine Birds (e.g. Jays, Doves, Pigeons, Starlings and other similar-sized birds)
• For up to two birds, a cage 4 feet by 4 feet, 6 feet high.
• For each additional bird, increase original floor area by 25 percent.

Large Passerine (e.g., Ravens, Crows, Magpies, small Hornbills and similar-sized birds)
• For up to two birds, a cage 6 feet by 4 feet, 8 feet high.
• For each additional bird increase original floor area by 25 percent.

Ground Hornbills, Indian Great Hornbills, Crowned Pigeons and similar sized birds
• For up to four birds, a cage having 400 square feet of floor area, 6 feet high, with a perch elevated 4 feet above the floor.
• For each additional bird, increase cage original floor area by 25 percent.

Waterfowl

Small to Medium (e.g. Green-winged Teal, Mallard and similar sizes Ducks, Geese)
• For up to four birds, a cage with 625 square feet of land area and 100 square feet of water area.
• For each additional adult bird, increase enclosure and pool size by 25 percent.

Large (e.g. Geese, Swans, and similar size)
• For up to four birds, an enclosure with 625 square feet of land and 100 square feet of water area.
• For each additional adult bird, increase enclosure and pool size by 25 percent.

Eagles, Hawks, Owls, Vultures
• For each bird, an enclosure 2 wingspreads by 3 wingspreads. The roof shall be of sufficient height to permit bird to perch erect on the highest perch.
• For each additional bird, increase cage length by 50 percent and width by 25 percent.
• Birds of prey used for falconry demonstrations shall be kept as UAPPEAL directs.

Large ground-dwelling (e.g., Congo Peafowl, Javan Peafowl, Curassows, Wild Turkeys, Brush Turkeys (moundbuilders), large Grouse, Capricali, and Sage Hen) (exhibit only)

• For up to six birds, a cage having 600 square feet of floor, 6 feet high, with the perch elevated 4 feet above the floor.
• For each additional bird, increase original floor area by 10 percent.

Lesser game birds (e.g., Pheasants, wild Guinea Fowl, Tragopans, Snowcocks, Partridge, Grouse, Chachlachas, Guans (exhibit only)

• For up to five birds, a cage having 500 square feet of floor, 6 feet high, with the perch elevated 30 inches.
• For each additional bird, increase original floor area 10 percent.

Quail (e.g., Bob-white Quail, Scaled Quail, Button Quail, and other species exhibit only)

• For a pair, a cage 4 feet by 4 feet, 2 foot high.
• For each additional animal, increase original floor area by 10 percent.

Wading Birds (e.g., Flamingos, Ibises, Spoonbills, Herons, Egrets, Cranes, Storks and their allies) and certain shore birds (Plovers and Sandpipers)

• For up to five birds, a cage of 900 square feet, with a wading pool of water covering 200 square feet.
• For each additional bird, increase original floor area by 25 percent.

Diving, skimming fish-eaters (e.g. Pelicans, Cormorants, Anhinga, Frigate Birds, Gannets, Boobies, Albatrosses, Sheerwaters, Petrels and Sheepbills)

• For up to two birds, a cage of 600 square feet, one fourth of which will be a pool of water, 24 inches deep.
• For each additional bird, increase original floor area by 25 percent.

Penguins (e.g., Humboldts, Emperor, King, Jackass, etc.) Puffins, Murres and Auks

Puffins, murres, auks
• For up to two birds, a cage of 600 square feet, one half of which shall be a pool of water, four feet deep. For each additional animal, increase original floor area and pool size by 25 percent.

Penguins-large (e.g. Emperor, King, and Southernmost species)

• For up to two birds, a cage of 600 square feet, one half of which shall be a pool of water, three feet deep with flowing water, 55-degree Fahrenheit or less. For each additional animal, increase original floor area and pool size by 25 percent.

Penguins-small (e.g. Humboldts, Blackfoot and Northernmost species)

• For up to two birds, a cage of 400 square feet, one half of which shall be a pool of water, two feet deep. For each additional bird, increase original floor area and pool size by 25 percent.

Ratites (e.g., Ostrich, Rhea, Emu, Cassowary)

• For one or two birds, a paddock enclosing 1250 square feet, six feet high with an attached shaded, protected area.
• For each additional bird, increase original paddock area by 25 percent.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Exceptions to Standard Caging Requirements for Captive Wildlife

Wildlife may be temporarily housed in cages or enclosures smaller than the sizes set forth above only under the following circumstances:

• For transport and for performing and non-performing animals as approved by UAPPEAL.
• Wildlife being held for sale by those persons properly licensed or for veterinary care, or quarantine may be temporarily housed or caged in smaller cages or enclosures for a period not to exceed 60 days. With written notification to USZA, this period may be extended in circumstances where a licensed veterinarian has certified that a longer holding period is medically necessary in the interests of the health, safety and welfare of the subject animals or the public. Medical records concerning all animals for which an extension of the 60-day period is obtained shall be maintained at the facility and shall be made available for inspection, upon request, by USZA. The caging or enclosure of all wildlife temporarily held under this section shall not be smaller than that required for the caged animal to stand up, lie down, and turn around without touching the sides of the enclosure or another animal. All wildlife thus caged or housed shall be permanently marked or their enclosures shall be permanently marked, so as to be traceable to written records indicating the date the wildlife was placed in temporary holding. Such records shall be maintained and made available for inspection by USZA.

The standard caging requirements shall not apply to facilities possessing ratites (ostriches, rheas, emus, and cassowaries) for propagation purposes only and not for public exhibition.

Newborn and juvenile mammals may be temporarily kept in enclosures below the standard caging requirements and are exempted from the land requirements and structural strength requirements as follows:

• Newborn mammals may be kept in incubation and rearing facilities. Nursing young may be maintained with their parents with no increase in required cage size for the adult animal for up to twelve weeks, provided that documentation is available to show the age of the young. Such time may be extended with a veterinarian’s statement, showing that such size cage is required for the continued health and welfare of the animals until a certain date.

Juvenile mammals may be kept in enclosures that meet or exceed the size specification in subsection (2) of this section provided that:
• Written documentation is available to verify the age of the animal.
• The animal is marked or otherwise identifiable.
• The animal shall be provided space for exercise on a daily basis.

Cages that meet the standard caging requirements shall be provided for Class I and Class II carnivores when they reach 25 pounds or six months of age, whichever comes first. Class III carnivores shall be provided cages that meet the standard caging requirements at six months of age. Class I, II, and III primates shall be provided cages that meet standard caging requirements at twelve (12) months of age.

Hatchling/fledgling birds and newborn reptiles and amphibians may be held in enclosures that allow for normal postural movements and social adjustments that ensure the health and sanitary needs of the animals.

Birds held temporarily for exhibit only and not for sale, may be kept in show cages or enclosures for a maximum of three (3) days, provided that, such birds have sufficient space for perching without touching the sides, top, or bottom of the cage and the health and sanitary needs of the birds are met. Water shall be available in the show cages at all times.

Reptiles and amphibians held temporarily for herptile shows, expositions, and exhibits may be kept for a maximum of three (3) days in enclosures that allow for normal postural movements and social adjustments and that ensure the health and sanitary needs of the animals.

Cages or enclosures for mobility impaired animals shall meet standard caging requirements, unless it can be demonstrated that such cage or enclosure, or its required accessories, are detrimental to the health or welfare of the animal. In such cases, written documentation by a veterinarian confirming the need for such exemption shall be maintained by the permittee and made available to USZA upon request.

Elephant Rides

No person, firm, or corporation shall use elephants for rides without first obtaining special UAPPEAL authorization. Qualifications for Elephant Ride Authorization:

• Safety record: Applicants for elephant ride authorization shall include in their initial application or application renewal, information that will identify, by drawings and/or photographs, the animal(s) that will be used in the rides. The application, or application renewal, shall also include a certified statement on the complete safety record of the animal(s). No elephant that has caused a serious injury or death to a handler, trainer, member of the public, or other person within five years prior to application, shall be used for rides. Incidents that occurred prior to the five year period may be reviewed by USZA for possible exclusion of the elephant for rides, in accordance with the following factors:

• The circumstances surrounding the injuries caused by the elephant.
• The seriousness or extent of injuries, or number of individuals affected.
• The number of incidents in which the elephant was involved.

USZA shall have approval authority regarding the use of elephants authorized for rides following consideration of the above factors. In addition, if an elephant(s) is involved in a safety incident subsequent to the approval of the application USZA may direct the animal to be removed from all exhibition activities until the conclusion of the investigation.

Safeguards: Applicants shall provide documentation of safeguards to insure public safety. This documentation shall include:

• An emergency plan for protecting the public that specifies what to do in case of elephant incidents; where tranquilizing equipment and/or firearms are kept; who is to use tranquilizing equipment, and when they shall be used to capture, control, or destroy escaped or out-of-control animals.
• Such equipment, and an employee trained in the use of such equipment, shall be on the premises at all times that such wildlife is in a public contact situation.

• Experienced supervision: All elephant rides shall be supervised by a minimum of one qualified handler and one assistant. Applicants shall provide documentation that the handler has had not less than six months of experience in elephant handling. Such handler and assistant shall be in the immediate presence of the elephant at all times when the elephant is in a position to be in direct contact with the public. Applicants shall include the names of handlers and the experience documentation in their initial application, and in their renewal applications thereafter.

• Barriers: A protective physical barrier shall be present between the elephant and the public at all elephant ride sites. Such barrier shall prevent bystanders from touching the animal. Applicants shall include in their application package photos or drawings of barriers they intend to use and a description of materials used to construct such barriers.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Transportation Requirements for Wildlife

Caging Requirements for Performing and Non-Performing Animals. General requirements for transporting wildlife in vehicles. No vehicle shall be used in transporting any wildlife except as follows:

• Vehicles shall be equipped to provide fresh air without injurious drafts and adequate protection from the elements to all animals.
• The animal traveling area shall be free of engine exhaust fumes.
• Fecal and food wastes shall be removed from the animal quarters daily.
• Animal cages shall have openings for emergency removal of wildlife.
• Wildlife in transport shall be protected from extremes in temperature that could be detrimental to the health and welfare of the animal.
• Wildlife transported in the same cage area shall be in compatible groups.
• The animal’s cage or enclosure shall be of sufficient strength and security to prevent escape. The cage or enclosure shall be large enough to ensurethat each specimen has sufficient space to turn, stand erect, and lie naturally. Provided, however that certain species may be restricted in their movements according to professionally acceptable standards when such freedom of movement would constitute a danger to the animals, their handlers, or other persons.
• Elephants shall be tethered during transport (except nursing young).
• Wildlife shall not be placed in enclosures over other specimens unless each enclosure is fitted with a floor which prevents excreta from entering lower enclosures.
• Wildlife shall be watered every 4 hours and fed daily.

Mobile Exhibits — Performing Animals

• No mobile exhibit shall utilize the performing animal caging dimensions prior to approval by USZA. To obtain such approval, the permittee shall provide written schedules to USZA of wildlife exercise intervals and scheduled performances. The exercise intervals shall be of such frequency, intensity and duration as to provide for the health and welfare of the animal over an extended period, provided that the animals shall not be caged without exercise or performances for more than a 72-hour period. Performing and exercise information shall be verifiable by USZA through inspections.

• Performing animals used in mobile exhibits shall not be confined in any cage or enclosure that is smaller in dimension; or is not equipped as follows

Class I and Class II Carnivores (i.e., Lions, Tigers, Jaguars, Leopards, Pumas, Bears, Hyenas and Wolves)

• For a single animal, a cage which shall permit the animal to turn or stand on all-fours with head clearance, and confined in such a manner so that no animal can injure another. For Class I animals, cages shall be constructed of steel, case hardened aluminum, alloy, or strength equivalent material. If bars are used, bars shall be spaced no more than 2 inches apart. For Class II animals, cage construction shall not be less than 9 gauge chain link or strength equivalent material. Cages of Class I and Class II animals that the public can access, shall be equipped with a physical barrier, which is made of a material to prevent the public from coming in contact with the animals. All cages shall have secure locking devices.

Primates, Class I and Class II
• For a single animal, a cage which shall permit the animal to turn and stand erect with head clearance, confined in such a manner so that no animal can injure another. For Class I animals, cages shall be constructed of steel, case hardened aluminum, alloy or strength equivalent material. If bars are used, bars shall be spaced no more than 2 inches apart. For Class II animals, cage construction shall not be less than 9 gauge chain link or strength equivalent material. Cages of Class I and Class II animals that the public can access, shall be equipped with a physical barrier, which is made of a material to prevent the public from coming in contact with the animals. All cages shall have secure locking devices.

Elephants

When not performing or being exercised, elephants shall either be:
• Securely tethered.
• Enclosed by an electric fence, under the supervision of at least one qualified handler and in an area not accessible to the public.

Class III Animals
• For a single animal, a cage which shall permit the animal to turn and stand on all fours, or stand erect, with head clearance, confined in such a manner so that no animal can injure another.

• Time limitation on smaller travel caging allowed for housing performing animals

• For performing wildlife possessed by traveling zoos and other traveling acts, wildlife shall be housed in cages or enclosures that meet or exceed the specifications as provided by USZA whenever such wildlife is housed in such travel cages or enclosures for more than 90 days. Performing wildlife shall not be kept in cages or enclosures below the size required by the standard caging requirements for more than a total of 90 days out of each 120 day period. Such mobile exhibits shall provide an itinerary of planned exhibition times and locations with annual renewal applications.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

Mobile Exhibits — Non-Performing Animals

Non-performing wildlife in mobile exhibits shall not be confined in any cage or enclosure that is smaller in dimension or is not equipped as follows:

Class I and Class II Carnivores (i.e. Lions, Tigers, Jaguars, Leopards, Pumas, Bears, Hyenas and Wolves)

• For a single animal, the cage length shall be double the body length (excluding tail), with a width that is equal to the body length, and a height that permits the animal to stand on all-fours with head clearance. For two or more animals kept together, add one-third more cage length for each additional animal. For Class I animals, cages shall be constructed of steel, case hardened aluminum, alloy or strength equivalent material. If bars are used, bars shall be spaced no more than 2 inches apart. For Class II animals, cage construction shall not be less than 9 gauge chain link or strength equivalent material. Cages of Class I and Class II animals that the public can access, shall be equipped with a physical barrier, which is made of a material to prevent the public from coming in contact with the animals. All cages shall have secure locking devices.

Primates
• All cages shall be well ventilated and shall have secure locking devices. Each cage shall have an overhead pull bar and a shelf. For two or more animals kept together, add one-third more cage length for each additional animal. For Class I animals, cages shall be constructed of steel, case hardened aluminum, alloy or strength equivalent material. If bars are used, bars shall be spaced no more than 2 inches apart. For Class II animals, cage construction shall not be less than 11 1⁄2 gauge chain link or strength equivalent material. Cages of Class I and Class II animals that the public can access, shall be equipped with a physical barrier, which is made of a material to prevent the public from coming in contact with the animals.

Gorillas
• For a single animal, a cage 8 feet by 8 feet, with a height at least 2 feet over the standing height of the animal.

Orangutan
• For a single animal, a cage 7 feet by 7 feet, with a height at least two feet over standing height of the animal,

Adult chimpanzee
• For a single animal, a cage 61⁄2 feet by 61⁄2 feet, with a height at least two feet over standing height of the animal.

Chimpanzees up to 50 pounds and macaques
• For a single animal, a cage 5 feet by 5 feet, with a height at least two feet over standing height of the animal.

Elephants
• For one animal in a non-performing capacity, a paddock that is double the body length in length and equal to the body length in width. For two or more animals kept together, increase square footage by one third for each additional animal.

Other than for exercise periods, elephants not kept in a paddock shall either be:
• Securely tethered.
• Enclosed by an electric fence under the direct, on-site supervision of a least one qualified handler and in an area not accessible to the public.

Class III animals (except Reptiles)
• For a single animal, the cage length shall be double the body length (excluding tail), with a width that is equal to the body length, and a height that will permit the animal to stand on all fours, or stand erect, with head clearance. For two or more animals kept together, add one third more cage length for each additional animal.

• Time limitation on smaller travel caging allowed for housing non-performing animals.

• For non-performing wildlife possessed by traveling zoos and other traveling acts, wildlife shall be housed in standard cage specifications as provided by USZA whenever such wildlife is present in such travel cages or enclosures for more than 45 days. Non-performing wildlife shall not be kept in cages or enclosures below the size required by the standard caging requirements for more than a total of 45 days out of each 90 day period. Such mobile exhibits shall provide an itinerary of planned exhibition times and locations with annual renewal applications.

General Regulations | Specific Species Requirements | Exceptions and Transportation | Top ↑

SHARE
SHARE